Manitoba HIV Research Group University of Manitoba



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Dr. Keith R. Fowke
Department Head and Professor Department of Medical Microbiology

B.Sc.(H) (Manitoba, 1988), Ph.D. (Manitoba, 1995)

Mailing Address:
Laboratory of Viral Immunology
Department of Medical Microbiology
745 Baanatyne Ave, Room 539
Winnipeg, MB R3E 0W3

Tel: (204) 789-3818
Fax: (204) 789-3926

In 1988 Dr. Fowke received his B.Sc. (H), First class, in Microbiology from the University of Manitoba (U of M).  He then initiated graduate work in the U of M’s Department of Medical Microbiology under the direction of Drs. J. Neil Simonsen and Francis Plummer.   His PhD thesis work entitled “Resistance to HIV-1 Infection Among a Group of Continuously Exposed Women” consisted of the initial description of HIV resistance in the Pumwani Sex Workers Cohort in Nairobi, Kenya.  After receiving his Ph.D. in 1995, Dr. Fowke sought to strengthen his interest in cellular immunology through a postdoctoral fellowship in the lab of Dr. Gene Shearer at the National Institutes of Health’s National Cancer Institute in Bethesda, Maryland.  Over the next four years Dr. Fowke’s research focused on immune dysregulation in HIV infection.  In 1999 he was recruited to BBI Biotech Research Laboratories, in Gaithersburg Maryland, as a Project Scientist to establish an HIV cellular immunology lab for a major NIH vaccine contract.   In October 1999 Dr. Fowke was recruited to a tenure-track Assistant Professor position in the U of M’s Department of Medical Microbiology and was promoted to Associate Professor in April 2004 and full professor in 2009.  He is currently cross appointed as a Professor in the U of M’s Department of Community Health Sciences and is a Visiting Lecturer in the Department of Medical Microbiology at the University of Nairobi.  Dr. Fowke has established a vital, active research laboratory consisting of a technician, graduate students, postdoctoral and clinical fellows, research fellows, B.Sc. (Med) and summer research students. 

The Viral Immunology Laboratory is currently focusing on three major areas of research.  The first is determining the immunological phenotype and genetic expression of CD4+ T-cells in individuals who are resistant to HIV infection or those who are infected but able to control their viral replication.  We hypothesize that resistance is mediated by a two phase model in which immune quiescence results in fewer activated cells that can serve as targets for HIV infection and a central memory-dominated HIV-specific cellular immune response that eliminates any infected cells. The second interest of the lab focuses on the role of immune activation and receptor polymorphisms in HIV disease progression. The lab’s final area of research interest is on defining the role of pre-existing humoral and cellular immunity to influenza (including H1N1) and disease outcomes as well as immune responses to vaccine and exposure.  For these projects the laboratory has received local, national and international funding from sources such as the Canadian Institutes for Health Research, American and Canadian Foundations for AIDS Research, the Elizabeth Glaser Foundation for Pediatric AIDS Research and the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. Dr. Fowke's research has been recognized with the Ken Hughes Young Investigator award in 2005, a Canadian Institutes for Health Research (CIHR) New Investigator Award (2005-2010) and a Manitoba Research Chair from the Manitoba Health Research Council (2008-2013).  Dr. Fowke has a particular interest in training young investigators and, in addition to supervising a number of graduate student and post-doctoral fellows, has helped organize a number of national and international workshops for young investigators and is principal investigator for the CIHR International Infectious Disease and Global Health Training Program.

Congratulations to Fowke Lab member!

Our very own Dr. Julie Lajoie has submitted a proposal application for the Grand Challenges Canada Stars in Global Health.

It has been officially announced - the project proposal has been granted for Round 5, Phase 1! Working under the University of Manitoba and implemented in Kenya, Dr. Lajoie proposes to induce immune quiescence in highly susceptible women by using low cost anti-infammatory drugs to reduce HIV incedence by 30%. Watch the project proposal video to learn more.

Click here to view the News Release issued by Grand Challenges Canada on Nov. 21, 2013

"Grand Challenges Canada's portfolio of projects shows how innovators with bold ideas have the potential to make a big impact on global health. By connecting game-changing ideas with some of the most pressing global health challenges, these projects will lead to sustainable and affordable health solutions in low- and middle-income countries." The Honourable Christian Paradis, Canadian Minister of International Development and Minister for La Francophonie.

Grand Challenges Canada is funded by the Government of Canada and is dedicated to supporting Bold Ideas with Big Impact in global health. For more information on the Grand Challenges Canada, please see their web site -


Fowke publications on PubMed


| 2012 | 2011 | 2010 | 2009 | 2008 | 2007 | 2006 | 2005 | 2004 | 2003 |
| 2002 | 2001 | 2000 | 1999 | 1998 | 1997 | 1996 | 1995 | 1992 |


  1. Songok EM, Luo M, Liang B, McLaren P, Kaefer N, Apidi W, Boucher G, Kimani J, Wachihi C, Sekaly R, FOWKE K, Ball BT, Plummer FA. Microarray Analysis of HIV Resistant Female Sex Workers Reveal a Gene Expression Signature Pattern Reminiscent of a Lowered Immune Activation State. PLoS One. 2012;7(1). PMID: 22291902
  2. Lajoie J, Juno J, Burgener A, Rahman S, Mogk K, Wachihi C, Mwanjewe J, Plummer FA, Kimani J, FOWKE KR. A distinct cytokine and chemokine profile at the genital mucosa is associated with HIV-1 protection among HIV-exposed seronegative commercial sex workers. Mucosal Immunol. 2012 Feb 8. PMID: 22318497
  3. Juno J, Tuff J, Choi R, Card CM, Kimani J, Wachihi C, Koesters-Kiazyk S, Ball TB, Farquar C, Plummer FA, John-Steward G, Luo M, FOWKE KR. The Role of G Protein Gene GNB3 C825T Polymorphism in HIV-1 Acquisition, Progression and Immune Activation. Retrovirology. Epub 2012 Jan 3; 9(1)1. PMID: 22214232
  4. Card CM, Keynan Y, Lajoie J, Bell CP, Dawood M, Becker M, Kasper K, FOWKE KR, HIV-controllers are distinguished by chemokine expression profile and HIV-specific T cell proliferative potential. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2012 Jan 11. PMID: 22240463
  5. Awah FM, Uzoegwu PN, Ifeonua P, Oyugi JO, Rutherford J, Yao X-J, Fehrmann F, FOWKE KR, Eze MO. Free radical scavenging activity, phenolic contents and cytotoxicity of selected Nigerian medicinal plants. Food Chemistry. Volume 131, Issue 4, 15 April 2012, Pages 1279-1286.

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  6. Burgener A, Rahman S, Ahmad R, Lajoie J, Ramdahin S, Mesa C, Brunet S, Wachihi C, Kimani J, FOWKE K, Carr S, Plummer F, Ball TB. Comprehensive proteomic Study identifies Serpin and Cystatin antipreoteases as novel correlates of HIV resistance in the cervicovaginal mucosa of female sex workers. Journal of Proteome Research. J Proteome Res. 2011 Nov 4;10(11):5139-49. Epub 2011 Oct 5. PMID: 21973077
  7. Awah FM, Uzoegwu PN, Ifeonua P, Oyugi JO, Rutherford J, Yao X-J, Fehrmann F, FOWKE KR, Eze MO. Free radical scavenging activity, phenolic contents and cytotoxicity of selected Nigerian medicinal plants. Food Chemistry. Volume 131, Issue 4, 15 April 2012, Pages 1279-1286.
  8. Bell, CP and FOWKE KR. Susceptibility of Solvent Users to HIV and Hepatitis C. National Collaborating Centre for Infectious Diseases. Purple Paper Issue 31 Sept 2011
  9. Keynan Y, FOWKE KR, Ball TB, Meyers AFA. Toll-Like Receptors dysregulation after Influenza virus infection: Insights into pathogenesis of subsequent bacterial pneumonia," ISRN Pulmonology. In Press. Volume 2011 (2011), Article ID 142518, 6 pages
  10. Thibodeau V, Lajoie J, Labbe A, Zannou MD, FOWKE KR, Alary M, Poudrier J, Roger M. High Level of Soluble HLA-G in the Female Genital Tract of Beninese Commercial Sex Workers Is Associated with HIV-1 Infection. Plos One. 2011 Vol 6 Issue 9 e25185 Epub 2011 Sep 23. PMID: 21966450
  11. Juno J, FOWKE KR, Keynan Y. Immunogenetic factors associated with severe respiratory illness caused by zoonotic H1N1 and H5N1 influenza viruses. Clinical and Developmental Immunology Clin Dev Immunol. 2012:797180. Epub 2011 Nov 3. PMID: 22110538
  12. Juno J, FOWKE K and Keynan Y. Epidemiology of the 2009 Pandemic Influenza A (H1N1). National Collaborating Centre for Infectious Diseases (NCCID) Publications: Evidence Reviews. 2011
  13. Choi RY, FOWKE KR, Juno J, Lohman-Payne B, Oyugi JO, Brown ER, Bosire R, John-Stewart G, Farquhar C. C868T Single Nucleotide Polymorphism and HIV Type 1 Disease Progression Among Postpartum Women in Kenya. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2011 Sep 27. PMID: 21902583
  14. McKinnon LR, Kaul R, Kimani J, Nagelkerke NJ, Wachihi C, FOWKE KR, Ball TB, Plummer FA. HIV-specific CD8(+) T-cell proliferation is prospectively associated with delayed disease progression. Immunol Cell Biol. 2011 May 24. PMID: 21606945
  15. Schellenberg JJ, Links MG, Hill JE, Dumonceaux TJ, Kimani J, Jaoko W, Wachihi C, Mungai JN, Peters GA, Tyler S, Graham M, Severini A, FOWKE KR, Ball TB, Plummer FA. Molecular definition of vaginal microbiota 1 in East African. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 2011 Jun;77(12):4066-74. Epub 2011 Apr 29. PMID: 21531840
  16. Keynan Y, Juno J and FOWKE KR. Immunogenetic factors associated with severe respiratory illness caused by Pandemic A/H1N1 influenza. Current Trends in Immunology. 2011 Volume 11 page 27-33. PMID: 22110538
  17. Keynan Y, Juno J, Kasper K, Rubinstein E, FOWKE KR. Targeting a chemokine receptor CCR5: good for HIV, what about other viruses? - Journal of Infectious Diseases. 2011 203:292. PMID: 21288830
  18. Keynan Y, Bodnarchuk T, FOWKE KR. Evaluation of Influenza-specific humoral response by micro-bead array analysis. Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases and Medical Microbiology. Volume 22, Issue 1, March 2011, Pages 25-29 PMID: 22379485
  19. Ao Z, Wang X, Bello AJ, Danappa Jayappa K, Yu Z, FOWKE K, He X, Chen X, Li J, Kobinger GP, Yao X. Characterization of anti-HIV activity mediated by R88-Apobec3G mutant fusion proteins in CD4+ T cells, PBMCs and macrophages. Hum Gene Ther. 2011 18 PMID: 21182427

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  20. Keynan Y, Juno J, Meyers A, Ball TB, Kumar A, Rubinstein E, and FOWKE KR. Chemokine receptor 5 ?32 allele in patients with severe pandemic (H1N1) 2009. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2010. 16: 1621-2. PMID: 20875295
  21. Horton RE, McLaren PJ, FOWKE KR, Kimani J, Ball TB. Cohorts for the study of HIV-1 exposed but uninfected individuals: Benefits and limitations. J Infectious Diseases. 2010. 202: S377-S381. PMID: 20887228
  22. McLaren PJ, Ball TB, Wachihi C, Jaoko W, Kelvin DJ, Danesh A, Kimani J, Plummer FA, FOWKE KR. HIV resistant commercial sex workers show a quiescent phenotype in the CD4+ T cell compartment and reduced expression of HIV-dependent host factors. J Infectious Diseases. 2010. 202: S339-S344. PMID: 20887221
  23. Meyer, A and FOWKE KR. The International Symposium on Natural Immunity to HIV: A gathering of the HIV resistance clan. Editorial. J Infectious Diseases. 2010. 202: S327-S328. PMID: 20887218
  24. Mahmud SM., Becker M, Keynan Y, Elliott L, Thompson LH, FOWKE KR, Avery L, Van Caeseele P, Harlos S, Blanchard J, Dawood M. Serological Survey of the Pandemic Influenza A/H1N1 in Manitoba, 2009. Canadian Medical Association Journal, 2010. 182, 1522-4.
  25. Juno J and FOWKE KR. Clarifying the Role of G Protein Signalling in HIV Infection and Pathogenesis: New Approaches to an Old Question. AIDS Reviews. 2010; 12: 164-76. PMID: 20842205
  26. Choi RY, Farquhar C, Juno J, Mbori-Ngacha D, Lohman-Payne B, Vouriot F, Wayne S, Tuff J, Bosire R, John-Stewart G, FOWKE K. Infant CD4 C868T polymorphism is associated with increased human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) acquisition. Clin Exp Immunol. 2010. 160: 461-5. PMID: 20132229
  27. Kaul R, MacDonald KS, Nagelkerke NJ, Kimani J, FOWKE KR, Ball TB, Luo M, Kariri A, Jaoko W, Moses S, Rowland-Jones S, Plummer FA. HIV viral set point and host immune control in individuals with HIV-specific CD8+ T cell responses prior to HIV acquisition. AIDS. 2010. 24: 1449-54. PMID: 20549840
  28. Keynan Y, Card CM, Ball TB, Li Y, Plummer FA and FOWKE KR. Cellular immune responses to recurring influenza strains have limited boosting ability and limited cross reactivity to other strains. Clinical Microbiology and Infections. 2010. 16: 1179-86. PMID: 20670292
  29. Awah FM, Uzoegwu PN, Ifeonu P, Rutherford J, Yao X-J, Fehrmann F, FOWKE KR, Tsopmo A, Oyugi JO and Eze MO. Superoxide Anion Production in Phytohemagglutinin A and Staphylococcal Enterotoxin B-activated Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells. Nigerian Jouranl of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. 2010. 25(1): 18-24.
  30. Awah FM, Uzoegwu PN, Oyugi JO, Rutherford J, Ifeonu P, Yao X-J, FOWKE KR and Eze MO. Free radical scavenging activity and immunomodulatory effect of Stachytarpheta angustifolia leaf extract. Food Chemistry, Volume 119, Issue 4, 15 April 2010, Pages 1409-1416.

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  31. Thompson LH, Mahmud SM, Keynan Y, Blanchard JF, Slater J, Dawood M, FOWKE KR, Van Caeseele P, Becker M. Serological Survey of the Novel Influenza A H1N1 in Inner-City Winnipeg, Manitoba, 2009. Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases and Medical Microbiology. In Press
  32. McKinnon LR, Capina R, Peters H, Mendoza M, Kimani J, Wachihi C, Kariri A, Kimani M, Richmond M, Koesters Kiazyk S, FOWKE KR, Jaoko W, Luo M, Ball TB, Plummer FA. Clade-specific evolution mediated by HLA-1 B*57/5801 in Human2 immunodeficiency virus type 1 clade A1 p24. J of Virology. 2009, 83:12636-42. Epub 2009 Sep 16. PMID: 19759140
  33. McKinnon LR,Mao X, Kimani J, Wachihi C, Semeniuk C, Mendoza M, Liang B, Luo M, FOWKE KR, Plummer FA, Ball TB. Epitope mapping of HIV-specific CD8+ T cells in a cohort dominated by clade A1 infection. PLoS One. 2009 11;4:e6965. PMID: 19750221
  34. Card CM, McLaren PJ, Wachihi C, Kimani J, Plummer FA and FOWKE KR. Decreased immune activation in HIV resistance is associated with an elevated frequency of CD4+ CD25+ FOXP3+ regulatory T cells. Journal of Infectious Diseases. 2009, 199:1318-22. Epublished March 2009. PMID: 19301980
  35. Oyugi JO, Vouriot FCM, Alimonti J, Wayne S, Luo M, Land AM, Ao Z, Yao Z, Sekaly RP, Elliott LJ, Simonsen JN, Ball TB, Jaoko W, Kimani J, Plummer FA and FOWKE KR. A common CD4 gene variant is associated with increased risk of HIV-1 infection in Kenyan female sex workers. Journal of Infectious Diseases. 2009, 199:1327-34. Epublished March 2009. PMID: 19301975

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  36. Koesters-Kiazyk S and FOWKE KR. Loss of CD127 expression links immune activation and CD4+ T cell loss in HIV infection. Trends in Microbiology. “25 Years of HIV Research” edition. 2008, 16:567-73. E publish Oct 2008. PMID: 18964017
  37. McKinnon LR, Ball TB, Wachihi C, Chinga N, Maingi A, Luo M, FOWKE KR, Plummer FA. Substantial intrapatient differences in the breadth and specificity of HIV-specific CD8+ T-cell interferon-gamma and proliferation responses. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2008, 49:123-7. PMID: 18769359
  38. Ao Z, Patel A, Tran K, He X, FOWKE K, Coombs K, Kobasa D, Kobinger G and Yao X. Characterization of a Trypsin-Dependent Avian Influenza H5N1-Pseudotyped HIV Vector System for High Throughput Screening of Inhibitory Molecules. Antiviral Research 2008, 79:12-8. PMID: 18359097
  39. Keynan Y, Card CM, McLaren PJ, Dawood MR, Kasper K, and FOWKE KR. The Role of Regulatory T Cells in Chronic and Acute Viral Infections. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 2008, Clin Infect Dis. 2008, 46:1046-52. PMID: 18444822
  40. Kimani J, Kaul R, Nagelkerke NJD, Luo M, MacDonald KS, Ngugi E, FOWKE KR, Ball BT, Kariri A, Ndinya-Achola J, Plummer FA. Reduced rates of HIV acquisition during unprotected sex by Kenyan female sex workers predating population declines in HIV prevalence. AIDS 2008, 22:131–137. PMID: 18090401

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  41. McKinnon LR, Ball TB, Wachihi C, McLaren PJ, Waruk JL, Mao X, Ramdahin S, Anzala AO, Kamene J, Luo M, Fowke KR, Plummer FA. Epitop cross-reactivity frequently differs between cntral and effector memory HIV-specific CD8+ T cells. J Immunol. 2007 Mar 15;178(6):3750-6. PMID: 17339472
  42. Negative mucosal synergy between Herpes simplex type 2 and HIV in the female genital tract. Rebbapragada A, Wachihi C, Pettengell C, Sunderji S, Jaoko W, Ball B, Fowke K, MazzulliT, Plummer FA, Kaul R. AIDS. 2007 Mar 12;21(5):589-98. PMID:1731452

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  43. Alimonti JB, Kimani J, Matu L, Wachihi C, Kaul R, Plummer FA and FOWKE KR. Characterization of CD8+ T cell responses in HIV-1 exposed seronegative commercial sex workers from Nairobi, Kenya. In Press in Immunology and Cell Biology.
  44. Koesters SA, Alimonti JB, Wachichi C, Matu L, Anzala O, Kimani J, Embree JE, Plummer FA and FOWKE KR. IL-7Ra Expression on CD4+ T Lymphocytes Decreases with HIV Disease Progression and Inversely Correlates with Immune Activation. European J. Immunology. 2006. 36:336-44. PMID: 16421946

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  45. 2005

  46. McKinnon LR, Ball TB, Kimani J, Wachihi C, Matu L, Luo M, Embree J, FOWKE KR, Plummer FA. Cross-Clade CD8+ T-Cell Responses With a Preference for the Predominant Circulating Clade. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2005. 40:245-249. PMID: 16249696
  47. Ao Z, FOWKE KR, Cohen EA, Yao X. Contribution of the C-terminal tri-lysine regions of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 integrase for efficient reverse transcription and viral DNA nuclear import. Retrovirology. 2005, 2:62. PMID: 16232319
  48. Iqbal SM, Ball TB, Kimani J, Kiama P, Thottingal P, Embree J, FOWKE KR, Plummer FA Elevated T cell counts and RANTES expression in the genital mucosa of HIV-resistant Kenyan sex-workers. J Infect Disease. 2005. 192:728-38. PMID: 16088822
  49. Alimonti JB, Koesters SA, Kimani J, Matu L, Wachihi C, Plummer FA and FOWKE KR. CD4+ T cell responses in HIV-exposed seronegative subjects are qualitatively distinct from those in HIV-infected individuals. J Infect Diseases. 2005. 191:20-4. PMID: 15592998

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  50. 2004

  51. Koesters S, Matu L, Kiama P, Anzala O, Embree J, Plummer FA, Kimani J, FOWKE KR. Elevation of immune activation in Kenyan women is associated with alterations in immune function: Implications for vaccine development. J Clinical Immunology. 2004. 24:702-9. PMID: 15622455
  52. Kaul R, Rutherford WJ, Rowland-Jones SL, Kimani J, Onyango JI, FOWKE KR, MacDonald K, Bwayo JJ, McMichael AJ, Plummer FA. Prospective associations of HIV-1 Env specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses in highly-exposed, persistently seronegative Kenyan sex workers. AIDS. 2004. 18:2087-9. PMID:15577632
  53. Shi B, Philpott SM, Weiser B, Kuiken C, Brunner C, Fang G, FOWKE KR, Plummer FA, Rowland-Jones S, Bwayo J, Anzala AO, Kimani J, Kaul R, and Burger H. Construction of an infectious HIV-1 molecular clone from a patient with a subtype D/C recombinant virus. AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses. 2004; 20:1015-18. PMID: 15585089
  54. Mayne M, Moffatt T, Kong H, McLaren PJ, FOWKE KR, Becker KG, Namaka M, Schenck A, Bardoni B, Bernstein CN, Melanson M CYFIP2 is highly abundant in CD4+ cells from multiple sclerosis patients and is involved in T cell adhesion. European Journal of Immunology 2004 34:1217-27. PMID: 15048733
  55. Paul J. McLaren, Michael Mayne, Stuart Rosser, Teri Moffatt, Kevin G. Becker, Francis A. Plummer, and Keith R. Fowke
    Antigen-Specific Gene Expression Profiles of Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells Do Not Reflect Those of T-Lymphocyte Subsets.2004 Sep;11(5): 977-82.. PMID:15358662

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  56. 2003

  57. Luo M, Kimani J, FOWKE K, Ball B, MacDonald K, Ramdahin S, Ndinya-Achola J, Njenga S, Bwayo JB, Embree J, Plummer FA. Evolutionary implications of current HIV epidemic on the population of Kenya, East Africa: study of population genetics by sequence-based DRB typing. Hum Immunol. 2003; 64:S20.
  58. Alimonti JB*, Ball TB and FOWKE KR. Mechanisms of CD4+ T Lymphocyte Cell Death in HIV/AIDS. J. Gen Virol. 2003; 84: 1649-1661 and JGV Direct on-line publication.| PubMed|

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  59. 2002

  60. Koesters S*, Rutherford WJ, FOWKE KR. Development of a novel allo-independent HIV-1 virus for use in immunoassays. J. Immunol Meth. 264: 69-76, 2002.| PubMed|
  61. 2001

  62. MacDonald KS, Matukas L, Embree JE, FOWKE K, Kimani J, Nagelkerke NJ, Oyugi J, Kiama P, Kaul R, Luscher MA, Rowland-Jones S, Ndinya-Achola J, Ngugi E, Bwayo JJ, Plummer FA. Human leucocyte antigen supertypes and immune susceptibility to HIV-1, implications for vaccine design. Immunol Lett 2001 79:151-7. | PubMed |
  63. Kaul R, Rowland-Jones SL, Kimani J, FOWKE KR, Dong T, Kiama P, Rutherford J, Njagi E, Mwangi F, MacDonald KS, Bwayo JJ, Plummer FA. New insights into HIV-1 specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte responses in exposed, persistently seronegative Kenyan sex workers. Immunol Lett 2001, 79:3-13. | PubMed |
  64. Kashiwada Y, Chiyo J, Ikeshiro Y, Nagao T, Okabe H, Cosentino LM, FOWKE K, Lee KH. 3,28-Di-O-(dimethylsuccinyl)-betulin isomers as anti-HIV agents. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2001,11:183-5. | PubMed |
  65. Kashiwada Y, Yamazaki K, Ikeshiro Y, Yamagishi T, Fujioka T, Mihashi K, Mizuki K, Cosentino LM, FOWKE K, Morris-Natschke SL, Lee KH. Isolation of rhododaurichromanic acid B and the anti-HIV principles rhododaurichromanic acid A and rhododaurichromenic acid from Rhododendron dauricum. Tetrahedron 57 (8): 1559-1563 FEB 18 2001. | PubMed |
  66. Chougnet C, Jankelevich, S, FOWKE KR, Liewehr DJ, Steinberg SM, Mueller BU, Pizzo PA, Yarchoan R, and Shearer GM. Long-term protease inhibitor containing-therapy results in limited improvement in T-cell function but not restoration of interleukin-12 production in pediatric AIDS patients. J Infect Dis. 2001 184:201-5. | PubMed |

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  67. FOWKE KR, Kaul R, Rosenthal KL, Oyugi J, Kimani J, Rutherford WJ, Nagelkerke NJD, Ball TB, Bwayo J, Simonsen JN, Shearer GM, Plummer FA. HIV-1 specific cellular immune responses among HIV-1 resistant sex workers. Immunology and Cell Biology, 2000, 78:586-95. | PubMed |
  68. Kashiwada, Y, Chiyo J, Ikeshiro Y, Nagao T, Okabe H, Cosentino LM, FOWKE K, Morris-Natschke SL, and Lee KH. Synthesis and anti-HIV activity of 3-alkylamido-3-deoxy-betulinic acid derivatives. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) 2000, 48:1387
    | PubMed |
  69. FOWKE KR, Behnke J, Hanson C, Shea K and Cosentino LM. Apoptosis: A method of evaluating whole blood and peripheral blood mononuclear cell cryopreservation. J. Imm. Methods 2000, 244:139-44. | PubMed |
  70. MacDonald KS, FOWKE KR, Kimani J, Dunand VA, Nagelkerke NJD, Ball TB, Oyugi J, Njagi E, Gaur L, Brunham RB, Wade J, Rowland-Jones S, Ngugi E, Bwayo J, Plummer FA. Influence of HLA supertypes on susceptibility and resistance to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection. J Infect Dis 2000; 181: 1581-9. | PubMed |

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  71. 1999

  72. Pinto LA, Berzofsky JA, FOWKE KR, Little RA, Merced-Galindez F, Humphrey R, Ahlers J, Dunlop N, Nara P, Shearer GM, Yarchoan R. HIV-specific immunity following immunization with HIV synthetic envelope peptides in asymptomatic HIV-infected patients. AIDS 1999, 13:2003-2012. | PubMed |
  73. Plummer FA, Ball TB, Kimani J and FOWKE KR. Resistance to HIV-1 infection among highly exposed sex workers in Nairobi: What mediates protection and why does it develop? Immunology Letters 1999, 66:27-34 | PubMed |

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  74. 1998

  75. Chougnet C, FOWKE KR, Mueller BU, Smith S, Zuckerman J, Jankelevitch S, Steinberg S, Luban N, Pizzo PA, Shearer GM. Protease inhibitor and triple-drug therapy: cellular immune parameters are not restored in pediatric AIDS patients after 6 months of treatment. AIDS 1998, 12:1-10. | PubMed |
  76. Rowland-Jones SL, Dong T, FOWKE KR, Kimani J, Krausa P, Newell H, Blanchard T, Ariyoshi K, Oyugi J, Ngugi E, Bwayo J, MacDonald KS, McMichael AJ, and Plummer FA. Cytotoxic T-cell responses to multiple conserved HIV epitopes in HIV-resistant prostitutes in Nairobi. Journal of Clinical Investigation 1998, 102:1758-65. | PubMed |
  77. FOWKE KR, Dong T, Rowland-Jones SL, Oyugi J, Rutherford WJ, Kimani J, Krausa P, Bwayo J, Simonsen JN, Shearer GM, Plummer FA. HIV-1 resistance in Kenyan sex workers is not associated with altered cellular susceptibility to HIV-1 infection or enhanced chemokine production. AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses 1998, 14:1521-1530. | PubMed |
  78. Simonsen JN, FOWKE KR, MacDonald KS and Plummer FA. HIV Pathogenesis: Epidemiology and mechanisms of susceptibility and disease progression. Current Opinion in Microbiology 1998, 1:423-429. | PubMed |

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  79. 1997

  80. FOWKE KR, D’Amico R, Chernoff DN, Pottage J, Bensen C, Sha B, Kessler HA, Landay AL, Shearer GM. Immunologic and virologic evaluation after influenza vaccination of HIV-1 infected patients. AIDS 1997; 11:1013-1021 | PubMed |

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  81. 1996

  82. FOWKE KR, Nagelkerke NJD, Kimani J, Simonsen JN, Anzala AO, Bwayo J, MacDonald KS, Ngugi EN, Plummer FA. Resistance to HIV-1 infection among prostitutes. Lancet 1996; 348:1347-51. | PubMed |

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  83. 1995

  84. Nath A, Hartloper V, Furer M, FOWKE KR. Infection of human fetal astrocytes with HIV-1: Viral tropism and the role of cell to cell contract in viral transmission. J Neuropath Exp Neurol 1995; 54:320-330. | PubMed |
  85. FOWKE KR, Plummer FA, Simonsen JN. Genetic analysis of human genomic DNA recovered from minute amounts of serum or plasma. J Immunol Meth 1995;180:45-51. | PubMed |

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  86. 1992

  87. Dawood MR, Allan R, FOWKE KR, Embree J, Hammond GW. Development of oligonucleotide primers and probes against structural and regulatory genes of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and their use for amplification of HIV-1 provirus by using polymerase chain reaction. J Clin Microbiol 1992;30:2279-2283. | PubMed |

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